Glossary

Click one of the letters above to advance the page to terms beginning with that letter.

A

Abdominal search for term
Of the abdomen, the upper part of the body between the chest and the pelvis.
Aggressive search for term
Aggressive can be used to describe the activity or severity of prostate cancer. When the disease is aggressive it may be more growing quickly or more spreading rapidly within the body.
Apoptosis search for term
A term used to describe how cells in the body naturally die by a controlled or programmed process.

B

Bone mineral density search for term
A measurement of how solid bone is.

C

Cholesterol search for term
A type of fat found in the blood stream.

E

External Radiotherapy search for term
Radiation delivered to a target (within the pelvic area for prostate cancer) outside of the body that affects the cancer located inside the body. May be called external beam radiation therapy.

F

Fasting glucose search for term
The amount of glucose in the blood after not eating for at least 8 hours, or overnight.

H

Hormone Therapy search for term
Hormone or hormonal therapy for prostate cancer stops testosterone from being produced in the body or how cancer cells respond to it. This causes prostate cancer cells that depend on testosterone to self-destruct and die.
Hot Flushes search for term
Hot flushes, or hot flashes, can be a side effect of hormone therapy for prostate cancer. They are typically a sudden feeling of intense heat with sweating and rapid heartbeat. They can last from 30 seconds to 30 minutes and occur several times a day.

I

Impotence search for term
Impotence is a type of sexual dysfunction that affects men and describes the inability to get or to keep an erection to enable sexual intercourse.
Insulin search for term
One of the hormones in your body that regulates how much glucose there is in the blood.

L

Localised Prostate Cancer search for term
Localised prostate cancer is when the cancer remains only within the prostate.
Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer search for term
Locally advanced prostate cancer is when the cancer has started to grow outside of the prostate and affect the surrounding tissues.
Lycopene search for term
A natural antioxidant found in tomatoes (especially cooked), watermelon and pink grapefruit.
Lymph nodes search for term
Small oval-shaped organs that are part of the immune system and how the body responds to infection and disease. They are part of the lymphatic system that carries fluid containing nutrients and waste material between the body tissues and the bloodstream and are an important site of metastasis (how cancer spreads throughout the body).

O

Osteoporosis search for term
A disease of the bones where there is a reduction in the bone mass. Can be caused by hormone treatment for prostate cancer.

P

Palpation search for term
Using the hands to examine the body for signs of disease or illness.
Pectoralis major search for term
The pectoralis major is the main muscle in the chest.
Perineum search for term
The area between the scrotum and the anus of a man or the vulva and anus of a woman.
PSA Level search for term
The level of PSA or prostate specific antigen in a blood sample is an important indicator (or biomarker) of prostate cancer activity. It can be used to determine if the prostate cancer is growing rapidly and if more aggressive (stronger) treatment is needed.
Psychologist search for term
A specialist clinician that can help people come to terms with the psychological consequences of cancer, including the patents themselves and their families and caregivers.

R

Radical prostatectomy search for term
Surgical removal of the entire prostate gland and some of the surrounding tissue.

S

Sarcopenia search for term
Loss of muscle mass and strength that can occur as a natural results of ageing, but also with hormone treatment for prostate cancer. Loss of balance, gait and overall ability to perform normal daily tasks are signs of this disease.
Selenium search for term
A trace element and antioxidant found in garlic, onions, shallots and leeks.
Sulphoraphanes search for term
Natural antioxidants found in all cabbages and cruciferous vegetables (e.g., white, red or Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, broccoli).

T

Testosterone search for term
Male hormone. Most prostate cancer cells depend on testosterone to survive and grow.
Triglycerides search for term
A type of fat found in the blood stream.

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